Category Archives: Long-distance Hiking

Hiking Destinations and Best Trails is HikerWriter’s sister site.

Here are links to some of the hiking stories there… There are a ton more in the hiking archives there.

Tramping Tongariro and Climbing Ngauruhoe in New Zealand

Tramping Tongariro and Climbing Ngauruhoe in New Zealand
The North Island of New Zealand’s most popular day hike — and a four day circuit for the hard core.

Hiking Wyoming’s Yellowstone National Park

Hiking Wyoming’s Yellowstone National Park
The Continental Divide passes through the park, but there’s so much more, including geyser trails and opportunities to see Yellowstone’s famous and abundant wildlife.

Hiking New Hampshire’s Mt. Washington

Hiking New Hampshire’s Mt. Washington
What’s it like to hike a mountain where trailhead signs warn: “STOP!” (in all caps.) “The area ahead has the worst weather in America. Many have died there from exposure, even in the summer. Turn back now if the weather is bad.”?
Walking Coast-to-Coast in England via Wainwright’s Route
This two week trek takes in some of the best of Britain’s scenery, including the Lake District, the Yorkshire Dales, and the North York Moors. You can imagine Heathcliffe in the fog. .

Hiking the High Sierra Trail in California

Hiking the High Sierra Trail in California
Crossing the “Range of Light” from giant Forest in Sequoia National Park to the John Muir Trail.

Heli-Hiking in British Columbia

Heli-Hiking in British Columbia
Heli-hiking in big Canadian Rocky Mountains is, in a word, awesome. And the adventure course? Could you? Would you?

Hiking Among the Redwoods in California’s Muir Woods

Hiking Among the Redwoods in California’s Muir Woods
 Day-hiking among the tall trees is a peaceful experience. This park has some of the biggest groves anywhere.

Trekking Mt. Kenya: Chogoria, Naro Moru, and High Peaks Circuit

Trekking Mt. Kenya: Chogoria, Naro Moru, and High Peaks Circuit
One of the world’s best hikes, bar none. Unbelievable scenery, plant life that looks like it sprang from the imagination of Dr. Seuss,  and the possibility of see monkeys, hyraxes, and even cape buffalo and elephants.

Tramping New Zealand’s Milford Track: The World’s Finest Walk?

Tramping New Zealand’s Milford Track: The World’s Finest Walk?
It earned the moniker “finest walk in the world” a century ago. Is it? Find out here.

Hiking in the French and Spanish Pyrenees

Hiking in the French and Spanish Pyrenees
From the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. This is a summer-long hike that brings you into western Europe’s wildest landscapes and quaint mountain villages. And the food is fantastic!

Trekking the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal

Trekking the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal
A three week trek around the Annapurna Massif gives views of some of the world’s highest peaks. An additional trek into the Annapurna Sanctuary brings you to snow-covered base camp.

Climbing Mt. Rainier in Washington’s Cascades

Climbing Mt. Rainier in Washington’s Cascades
This is a classic climb of Washington’s highest peak. if you tackle it, be in top shape: it’s a rugged climb, complete with ice axes, crampons, and ropes.

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro on the Machame Route

Climbing Mt. Kilimanjaro on the Machame Route
 At 19,340 feet, Kilimanjaro is Africa’s highest peak, which means that it’s one of the so-called “seven summits” — the highest peak on each continent. The Machame Route is a good way to climb it and avoid altitude sickness.
Hiking Arizona’s Grand Canyon, Rim to Rim
The Grand Canyon, Rim-to-Rim. 21-ish  miles, 5000 feet down from the South Rim then another 6,000 up the North. HIking it reveals two billion years of geologic history.

Tips for Solo Hikers on Long Trails

We all know the benefits of the buddy system; they’ve been drilled into our heads since childhood. Virtually every instruction guide you’ll read on almost every activity — hiking, diving, swimming, caving, mountaineering — urges outdoorspeople to stay with at least one partner, and sometimes more.

But what happens when partners aren’t available? On a long-distance hike, it’s not always possible to find a compatible partner who has the same several-month time-frame off. A hiker may start with a partner, but become separated by injury or incompatibility. And some people simply prefer to experience the solitude and personal growth of a solo long-distance hike, and the independence of not having to negotiate every decision of daily mileage, how long to stop for lunch, or where to camp.

Solitude on a Long-Distance Trail

Even hikers who choose to hike alone sometimes get lonely. But being independent on a trail doesn’t mean being alone all the time.

One possibility is to choose a trail where there’s a social scene. Trails with a hut, shelter, or lodging system are found throughout Europe, New Zealand, Nepal, and (less commonly) in North America. Trails with permit systems that require hikers to stay in designated camping areas are also good places to meet others — or at least, to have the security of camping with other people around. On the popular Appalachian Trail, for example, sociable hikers can find companionship almost whenever they want. Solitary types can hike alone and camp alone, but they can also drop into trail towns, hostels, or trail shelters if the silence becomes too deafening.

Another advantage of the Appalachian Trail (and increasingly, this is happening on the Pacific Crest Trail, as well) is that it is relatively easy to find a partner en route. Hikers who start solo might join up with informal groups of others for a while, or may form partnerships that last for the duration of your hike. On less traveled trails, there are fewer opportunities to form such partnerships.

Hikers who remain solo might experience occasional bouts of loneliness. Some simple strategies can help.

  • Bring a book. A long trail is a great time to read one of those heavy-weight classics that real life so seldom makes time for.
  • Bring music. Not everyone likes listening to music in the woods, but for hikers who do, an Ipod provides entertainment.
  • Write in a journal. Some hikers get even more creative, by composing haiku poems, drawing what they see, or writing songs.
  • Bring a project. Some hikers use the time on a long-distance hike to reevaluate their lives. A project book (an example would be Julia Cameron’s The Artist’s Way, which includes many pages of creative exercises) may be a great way to use some of the time in camp in a productive and creative way.

Safety Strategies for Solo Hikers

  • Choose a trail with a fair amount of traffic.
  • Sign in at permit stations at the entrance to wildernesses. Permits tell rangers where and when hikers arrived, and can help them search for a lost hiker.
  • Sign trail registers. These are informal notebooks left on some trails in shelters, at trailheads, and even in hiker-friendly businesses and hostels. They are another way to know when a hiker was last seen.
  • Don’t take unnecessary risks. This means avoiding the temptation to tale shortcuts, waiting out extremely bad weather, and being vigilant about environmental ailments such as altitude sickness, hypothermia, and dehydration.
  • Make sure someone at home knows the itinerary.
  • Bring a cell phone or a satellite phone. International travelers should make sure they have international cell service on their phones, or a dedicated international moblie phone.
  • Know standard ways of signaling, such as using a mirror, lighting a fire, using the color orange, and sending out signals in bursts of threes.
  • Solo women travelers should be especially vigilant about who they tell their plans to.
  • Carry an emergency kit with the “10 essentials” in it.

Solo hiking isn’t for everyone. But with some experience, the right gear for the conditions, and the common sense to stay safe, it can be an intense and rewarding experience.

Long–Distance Hiking: Just the FAQs, Ma’am

Here I’ve collected and answered some of the most common questions heard on long trails. These questions — and plenty of others — are discussed in more detail in my books. Advanced Backpacking: A Trailside Guide  and Hiking the Triple Crown

I’ve always wanted to do a long hike. How much does long-distance hiking cost?

The High Sierra in June

Good news and bad news: Let’s start with the bad news. Backpacking equipment can be quite expensive, especially if you go for the top-of-the-line stuff. So if you’ve got to start from scratch and you buy everything new, you can expect to spend at least $1000 on the basics: (tent, sleeping bag, pack, boots, stove, and raingear). That budget will get you solid middle-of-the-road gear, especially if you can hit some sales (Check out our article on cheap hiking gear for some ideas on stretching your budget). High rollers can easily spend $500 or even $1000 more. Then there’s clothing, pots and eating utensils, first aid and personal gear, maps and guidebooks, transportation expenses to and from the trailhead, and — don’t forget — food for 5 – 6 months, postage for resupply boxes, plus money for lay-over days in town.

Ready for some good news? Once you’ve bought your gear, your ticket, and most of the food you’ll send to yourself in resupply boxes, there isn’t much left to spend money on. Hikers figure $2.00 per mile and up for on-trail expenses. (Another way to figure it is $100 per town stop per person, if you’re staying in hostels or sharing hotel rooms with one or more other people; in some regions of the country, like new England, you’ll spend more.) Couples or hiking partners can lower the cost by sharing share some of those expenses, like the occasional night in a motel in town, or postage for sending unneeded equipment home or up ahead.

There are ways to minimize the expense. Some hikers make their own gear. Some cook and dehydrate most of their meals in advance. Some pay attention to their budgets during town stops by staying in campgrounds and hostels rather than hotels.

How do people manage that?

All different ways. Some save money for a couple of years by deliberately living a simpler life than they can “afford.” Some drive an older car or don’t go out to eat so much. Buying used gear is also an option (check the bulletin board at your local retailer, or join a hiking organization and list your request for gear in its newsletter). Many people sublet their apartments or rent out their homes while they are away.

How do you prepare for a long-distance hike?

The best favor you can do for yourself is to get in shape BEFORE your hike. Some hikers claim that that’s impossible: They say that the only way to get in shape to carry a pack up mountains all day is to carry a pack up mountains all day. I say hogwash! Sure, no matter how fit you are, you’ll have a few break-in days as your body gets used to doing something different. But there’s a huge difference in how you’ll feel if you start in good aerobic shape versus how you’ll fell if you start in slug shape. Believe me — I’ve done it both ways!

How many miles a day do hikers walk?

Depends on the terrain, the hiker, and the load you’re carrying. The average AT hiker completes the trail in about 5 1/​2 months, which means averaging between 14 and 16 miles a day (it depends on how many rest-days, or “Zero” days, you take). The longer PCT and CDT have to be completed in about 5 months because of snow, meaning that the average mileage on those trails has to be higher — about 18 to 22 miles a day. That’s a LOT, by the way, if it’s not something you’ve ever done before.

Averages aside, there are huge variations in how much mileage people can do. Some extremely fit and motivated hikers cover 30, 40, or (very very occasionally and often painfully) even more miles a day. The most I’ve ever done was 35 miles with a VERY light pack, and I wasn’t happy at the end of the day! But on easy terrain when I’m broken in, I can comfortably do mileage in the mid-20s. But not day after day after day.

When you think about mileage, though, always consider the terrain and the elevation gains. Most people can cover 30 – 50 percent more mileage on the PCT than on the AT because the grades are more gentle and the footway is smoother.

How do I know how many miles a day I can walk?

You’ll learn from experience. People who complete long-trails are by and large just average folks of varying ages and fitness levels. If you are reasonably fit, and don’t have any specific problems, there’s no reason to think you can’t do the “average” required mileages listed above for the three trails. Of course, the point of a long-distance hike is the quality, not the speed with which you get to the destinations. You may well find that you enjoy a more leisurely page. On the PCT and CDT, that may mean that you’ll have to complete the trail over two seasons.

When you start your hike, plan for some low-mileage break-in days if possible. (On the AT, it’s a good idea to plan 10-mile days for the first week or so. It’s not always possible to do this on the PCT and CDT because of the distance between water sources.) And don’t forget to factor in the terrain: More mountains means less miles!

How many pairs of boots do you wear out?

It depends on the type of boot and which trail — and on how you walk and how much weight you carry. The AT is the hardest on boots because it has the rockiest, muddiest, and gnarliest footway of the three trails. However, it’s also shorter. If you use old-fashioned leather hiking boots, figure that you’ll need two pairs. If you’re using trail runners or sneakers, you may go through three or four pairs. If I’m using (lightweight) boots, I always break in two pairs of boots before a thru-hike, but this may not work for everyone because if it’s your first thru-hike, your feet may grow a full size (or even more) during the trip.

What do you eat on the trail?

Some hikers find that packing ALL their food in advance is a bad idea. Your body’s needs and tastes may change over the course of a hike. You might get sick of all that Ramen you packed six months ago!

Some staples you’ll see a lot of: Pasta. Lipton noodles-and-sauce packages. Ramen noodles. Instant oatmeal. Instant potatoes. Freeze-dried meals. Stove-top stuffing. Dehydrated meats and veggies. Snickers Bars. GORP (Good old raisins and peanuts). Crackers and cheese. Salami or similar sausages. Peanut butter and jelly. Instant soup mixes. Most of these are available in stores in towns along the way. You might also carry some fresh veggies (onions and carrots last well) for a little variety. Or dehydrate your own food.

Have you seen bears?

Yes, on all three of the Triple Crown trails. Bears are wild animals and will usually run from people. However, they can become problematic if they are defending a food source such as a berry patch or a cache of carrion, if they are surprised or frightened, or if a mother bear perceives you as a threat to her cub. If you see a cub, remember that Mama Bear is undoubtedly around and watching you very closely — retreat so she doesn’t feel threatened.

Over the years, bears have learned that backpacks are a great food source! They may try to get at your trail rations. In bear country, hanging food high in a tree using the counterbalance method is always a good idea, as is cooking and eating 100 yards away from your campsite. In “bear problem” areas such as Yosemite, Kings Canyon, and Sequoia National Parks, bears may be more aggressive and the park may provide bear lockers for food storage or have regulations requiring the use of special bear-proof canisters.

Do you worry about safety?

Backcountry travelers should always be attentive to safety because if you get into a jam you may have to be the one to get yourself out of it. That means being careful crossing tricky terrain like snowfields and rivers. It means keeping an eye on the weather. It means paying attention to where the next water source is. And it means exercising common sense when dealing with strangers. All that said, I feel safer in the backcountry that on a city street.


Leave-no-Trace Trekking in Nepal

We all know that tourism can have benefits for local cultures, especially if the economic infrastructure is set up in a way that provides good jobs (and training for even better jobs) and sources products locally. But there is a careful balance to be maintained: Too many tourists can shift the balance and cause harm, as well as good. Overdependence on tourism may threaten traditional ways of making a living, leaving locals vulnerable to global economics that affect tourism in their area. Well-meaning gifts can encourage children to turn to begging rather than education. Cultural conflict, economic disparity, and pollution can follow in the footsteps of well-shod tourists.

Treks on Nepal’s famous routes such as the Mt. Everest Trek or the Annapurna Circuit are on the life-list of many adventure travelers. That means crowds. Both the fragile alpine environment and subsistence culture are vulnerable to damage from tourism.

Environmental Issues for Trekkers in Nepal

High Country is Harsh and Fragile

The high altitude and alpine environment of most of Nepal’s trekking areas, such as the popular Annapurna Circuit and Everest Trek, makes these regions extremely vulnerable to pollution and overuse. Surprisingly, guided groups may actually have less impact than unguided independent trekkers, especially if the groups are run in an environmentally responsible manner.

Take cooking fuel. It’s a seemingly small issue, but it has big ramifications. Environmentally responsible groups bring in their own cooking fuel, rather than relying on locally sourced (and rare) wood.  In contrast, food prepared for independent trekkers is often cooked on wood-burning stoves, which contributes to deforestation — a major problem in fragile alpine areas. Cut-rate tours arranged in the back-alley outfitters of Kathmandu may not adhere to the same environmental standards as groups run by established tour agencies. When arranging a trek, ask about environmental issues.

Waste is another problem. Some popular sections of trails are strewn with waste, including toilet paper. The same leave-no-trace rules you follow at home should be followed on Nepal’s trails: Pack out all batteries and plastic waste, and as much as possible, all other trash. In the dry cold air of high altitudes, it takes a long time for anything to decompose, and this includes those pink “flowers” of TP.  Dispose of toilet paper by burning it, disposing of it in outhouses when they are available, or leaving it in a toilet refilled with earth – anything to be sure it won’t resurface as litter.

More Minimum Impact Tips

Annapurna Sanctuary
  • If camping with a group, share a toilet pit, and fill it in so no trace remains after use. It should be at least 100 feet from a stream or river.
  • There is no way to dispose of or recycle plastic water bottles in the remote villages. Instead of buying bottled water, use a purifier.
  • The widely available local staple food, dal bhat, is a combination of lentils and rice (and sometimes vegetables). It places fewer burdens on local villagers to produce this meal, as the ingredients are available locally.
  • Wash with bio-degradable soaps — again, not near a stream or river.

Cultural Issues for Trekkers in Nepal

For us tourists, the chance to interact with another culture is a precious one, and it can be hard to see that we can be doing harm when we visit a village, give presents to children, and photograph sacred sites. But too many tourists, even well-meaning ones, can place stress on indigenous and subsistence cultures. A society that has functioned on its own for centuries can find itself suddenly dependent on tourist dollars. Western values may erode cultural norms. To lessen impact:

  • Nepal’s’ culture is very religious, combining aspects of Buddhism and Hinduism. Always walk to the right side of the many mani walls (walls with carvings found alongside the trails), or counterclockwise around stupas and monuments. This ensures that no matter which way you go, when you return, you will make a full circle.
  • Resist the urge to give gifts to begging children. Begging undermines a culture. Those who wish to help can give a package of pens to a local school, share some food, or make a donation through one of the many aid agencies in Kathmandu. Himalayan Rescue Association is a worthy cause, as it provides medical aid to rural Nepali villagers and mounts an altitude sickness prevention education program for trekkers.
  • Hire porters. This is at traditional way of trekking in Nepal, and is a way of contributing to the economy without giving alms or undermining the culture: Trekkers pay for work performed. The cost is minimal, and the positive impact is huge.
  • Ask guides about the appropriate behavior at shrines and religious sites.
  • Ask people before photographing them; they aren’t objects.

By following these simple precepts, visitors can help ensure they are following the Leave-no-Trace edict of taking only pictures, leaving only footprints.

Appalachian Trail Thru-Hiking: A Primer

This overview is the first in a series of posts about how to plan, prepare, and pack for long-distance hiking on the Appalachian Trail.

Every spring, some 2,000 people converge at Springer Mountain, the southern terminus of the Appalachian Trail’s in northwest Georgia. A couple of hundred more start later in the season, going southbound from Mt. Katahdin, the Appalachian Trail’s northern terminus in Maine.

Historically, the drop-out rate has been enormous, with some 90 percent of those who start failing to finish. More recently, according to the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, the completion rate has been higher – as much as 25 or 30 percent – perhaps due to the amount of information now available.

First Things First

Get some hiking experience! Sounds obvious? Unbelievably, some people show up at the trail having never backpacked before. Perhaps they were inspired by a slide show or a book, but it takes more than a dream to hike 2,200 miles

Long-distance backpacking involves aches and pains, smelly socks, smellier tent mates, foul weather (including mud, rain, snow, heat, and humidity), insects, rodents, roots, rocks, and sheer exhaustion. There are plenty of wonderful rewards — but not everyone is cut out to be a long-distance hiker. It’s better to find out first, before quitting a job and taking six months off!

  •  Preparation.  Read about it. Couples, old men, young women, a blind hiker, a family: it seems that everyone has penned his or her story of an Appalachian Trail thru-hike. What’s especially interesting is that these books and Internet accounts have so much in common. Everyone, it seems, starts with a too-heavy pack.
  • Fitness. It’s certainly true that the only way to truly get ready to put on a pack and walk up a mountain is to put on a pack and walk up a mountain. But hikers who are fit at the start are going to be a whole lot happier than hikers who aren’t. Anything aerobic will help.
  • Equipment: One rule is constant. Packs should be as light as possible. Most experienced long-distance backpackers use the lightest gear available. Or modify gear to cut weight. You’ll find specific gear suggestions under our “Equipment” category.
  • Foot preparation: Be sure shoes fit properly, are broken in and are comfortable going uphill and down — BEFORE you start your hike. Thru-hikers use either trekking shoe or hiking boots; the decision depends on pack-weight, ankle strength, and fitness.
  • Resupply Planning: Most hikers pre-pack food and supplies that they have bought in advance. Then someone at home mails the boxes to general delivery at post offices along the Appalachian Trail. Zip codes can be found in the Thru-Hikers Companion or the Data Book (see the section below, on resources). It is possible to buy supplies en route, although small towns may have only a tiny convenience store with limited supplies. Most hikers send boxes to the smaller towns, and do a combination of mail drops and en-route shopping in larger towns.

Appalachian Trail Planning Resources for Itineraries and Resupply

The Appalachian Trail Conservancy has a long list of books, guides, maps, and resources on every aspect of the Appalachian Trail. Contacting them and looking through the resources available at their website and Trail Store should be your first stop.

  • The A.T Data Book is a pocket-sized book containing information about trail mileages between water sources, campsites, mountain summits, road crossings, towns, and other features.
  • Guidebooks and maps are available for each region of the trail from the Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Each pack contains a series of trail maps, profile maps (showing elevation change along with major landmarks), and a guidebook for that section.
  • The Thru-Hiker’s Companion, published by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association, contains information about major trail landmarks , but is most useful for its information about towns where hikers can resupply, do laundry, find cheap accommodations, and get meals.

Five million steps, one after the other. All it takes is thorough planning, a positive attitude, and a sense of adventure!

Karen Berger has thru-hiked the Appalachian Trail.